A movement is a style or prevailing inclination in art or design that upholds a specific philosophy/ideal followed and promoted by a group or artists for a period of time.
Gothic/Gothic Revival - late 19th century Biedermeier - period refers to Central Europe used to denote artistic styles that flourished in this period 1815-48 Vienna Congress 1815
1851 The Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace The Aesthetic Movement - 1860s-90s - Libertys Regent Street 1875 1919-33 - Bauhaus - Walter Gropius
1880-1914 - Arts & Crafts 1880-1910 - Art Nouveau 1897-1905 - Vienna Sucession
MODERNISM 1907-35 - Deutscher Werkbund 1909-30 - Futurism 1916-23 - Dada 1917-35 - Constructivism 1917-31 - De Stiji 1919-33 - Bauhaus 1920-80 - International Style 1920-39 - Art Deco
POST MODERNISM 1945-present Contemporary? 1958-72 - Pop 1965-present - Post Modern Design? 1981-88 - Memphis
Scottish School Minimalism Romanticism Constructivism Modernism Postmodernism Futurism International style
There are many design movements which involved many branches of the arts and literature here are a few with more to be added to the list.